England In the 18th century
Venetian Renaissance Artists
In 18th century English, for the first time developed a distinctive painting school. It consisted mainly of portrait painters who were influenced by the Venetian Renaissance artists. Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) and Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) are best known. Reynolds, who had traveled in Italy, was dedicated to reviving the Renaissance ideal painting. His portrait, though charming and touching, is not very interesting in color or texture. Gainsborough, on the other hand, had a talent for brilliant brush strokes. The surfaces of his paintings glow with brilliant color.
19th Century Painting
Invention of Camera
The 19th century is sometimes regarded as the period during which modern art began to take shape. An important reason for the so-called revolution in art at this time was the invention of the camera, which forced artists to rethink the purpose of the painting.
Pure Colors & Pigments
An important development resulted partly from the widespread use of manufactured colors. Prior to the 19th century, most artists or their assistants made their own colors by grinding pigments. Early commercial colors were inferior to handmade colors. Artists in the late 19th century found that the dark blues and browns of previous paintings turned black or gray within a few years. They started using pure colors again. These artists used pure colors to preserve their work and sometimes because they try to capture the effects of sunlight in outdoor scenes more precisely.
Painting in the 1900s
Also France was the great center of art in the 19th century, English landscapists John Constable (1776-1837) and Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) made valuable contributions to 19th century painting. Both were interested in painting light and air, two aspects of nature as 19th century artists fully explored. Constable used a method known as divisionism, or broken color. He put contrasting colors side by side in thick, short strokes or dots over a basic background color. He often used a palette knife to use the paint thickly. Höet Wainmade him famous when it appeared in Paris in 1824. It is a simple rural scene of a hay cart (wain) that crosses a river. Clouds drift over meadows speckled with patches of sunlight. Turner’s paintings are more dramatic than Constable’s. He painted the majestic sights of nature – storms, seascapes, glowing sunsets, high mountains. Often a golden haze partially obscures the objects in their images, making them seem to float in unlimited space.
Spanish Painter Francis Goya
Francisco Goya (1746-1828) was the first major Spanish painter to appear since the 17th century. As a favorite painter of the Spanish court, he made many portraits of the royal family. The royal personalities are outfitted in elegant clothing and fine jewels, but in some of their faces, all that is reflected is vanity and greed. In addition to portraits, Goya painted dramatic scenes as the third of May 1808. The picture shows the execution of a group of Spanish rebels by French soldiers. Bold contrasts of light and dark, and gloomy colors pierced by splashes of red, bring out the grim horror spectacle.
Frankrike Under Napoleon
Classicism and romance art
The period of Napoleon’s reign and the French Revolution saw the emergence of two opposite tendencies in French art – classicism and romance. Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) were inspired by ancient Greek and Roman art and the Renaissance. They emphasized drawing and used color mainly to facilitate the creation of solid shapes. As the favorite artist of the revolutionary government, David often painted historical events of the period. In his portraits, like that of Madame Récamier, he aims to achieve classical simplicity.
Théodore Géricault (1791-1824) and the romantic Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) revolt against David’s style. For Delacroix, color was the most important element of painting, and he had no patience to imitate classical statues. Instead, he admired Rubens and the Venetians. He chose color, exotic themes for his images, which sparkle with light and are full of movement.
The Barbizon painters were also part of the general romantic movement that lasted from about 1820 to 1850. They worked near the village of Barbizon on the edge of the Fontainebleau forest. They sketched out-of-doors and finished the paintings in their studios.
Other artists experimented with everyday, ordinary subject matter. The landscapes of Camille Corot (1796-1875) reflect his love for nature, and his figure studies show a kind of balanced calm. Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) called himself a realist because he painted the world as he saw it – even his hard, unpleasant side. He limited his palette to some gloomy colors, which he sometimes put on with a palette knife. Édouard Manet (1832-1883) also took his subject from the world around him. People were shocked by his colorful contrasts and unusual techniques. The surfaces of his pictures often have a flat, patternlike texture of brush strokes. Manet’s techniques and methods for recording the effects of light on the shape are influenced by younger painters, especially the Impressionists.
Impressionism Art Form
Working in the 1870s and 1880s, the group of artists known as the Impressionists wanted to paint nature just as it was. They went much further than Constable, Turner, and Manet to study the effects of light in the color. Some of them elaborated scientific theories of color. Claude Monet (1840-1926) often painted the same view at different times of the day to show how its appearance changes under different conditions of light. Regardless of the subject, his scenes consist of hundreds of small brushstrokes side by side, often in contrasting colors. From a distance, the beats are mixed to give the impression of solid shapes. Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) used Impressionist methods to capture the celebration of Parisian life. In their dance at the Moulin de la Galette people vividly colored clothes mingle and dance merrily. Renoir painted the whole picture with little ones, also brush strokes. The dots and streaks of color create a texture on the surface of the painting that gives it a special type of unity. The masses of people seem to dissolve in sunlight and shimmering color.
20th Century Painting
A number of artists soon became dissatisfied with impressionism. Artists such as Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) considered that impressionism did not describe solidity forms in nature. Cézanne wanted to paint still life because they allowed him to concentrate on the shapes of fruits or other objects and their arrangement. Objects in his still life see that he reduced his forms to simple geometric shapes. His technique of placing stains of color and short brushstrokes of rich colors side by side shows that he learned a lot from the Impressionists.
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) and Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) reacted to the realism of the Impressionists. Unlike the Impressionists, who said they look at nature objectively Van Gogh cared a little for accurate drawing. He often distorted objects to express his ideas more imaginatively. He used impressionistic devices to put contrasting colors next to each other. Sometimes he squeezed paint from the tubes right on the canvas into thick strips, like in fields of yellow corn.
Gauguin doesn’t care about the uneven color of the Impressionists. He applied paint smoothly in large flat areas, which he separated from each other with lines or dark edges. The colorful civilizations of the tropics as a major part of its subject.
Cézanne’s method of building arrangements in space with simple geometric shapes was further developed by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Georges Braque (1882-1963), and others. Their style became known as Cubism. The cubists painted the objects as if they could be viewed from multiple angles at once, or as if they had been taken apart and reassembled on a flat canvas. Often the objects hardly resemble anything in nature. Sometimes the cubists cut out shapes of fabric, cardboard, wallpaper, or other material and pasted them on the canvas to make a collage. Textures are also varied by the addition of sand or other substances in the paint. Since Manet, the trend has been to place less emphasis on the subject and more emphasis on composition and technology.
American Style of Painting
American painting before the 20th century consisted mainly of portraits and landscapes based on European styles. Many American artists, such as James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) and John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), lived abroad and were influenced by European art. However, there was an important group of American genre painters, the best of which were Winslow Homer (1836-1910) and Thomas Eakins (1844-1916).
In the 1890s a group of young painters called The Eight, led by Robert Henri (1865-1929), tried to create an art that was clearly American. John Sloan (1871-1951) and George W. Bellows (1882-1925) painted life in alleys, backyards, harbors, and slums. Members of the eight helped organize the 1913 Armory Show in New York City. The exhibition, which was held in an arsenal, brought together modern art from the US and Europe. At this show, Americans saw the art of daring the Cubists and other modern Europeans for the first time.
At the beginning of the First World War, US artists were aware of everything going on in modern European painting. But they did not want to exploit the new ideas until several years later. Many artists in the 1930s were regional artists such as Grant Wood (1891-1942), who painted realistic scenes of life in the Middle West.
Efter andra världskriget blev USA världens centrum för målning. Arshile Gorky (1904-1948) och Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) var bland de ledare som hjälpte till att skapa en ny stil som kallas action painting eller abstrakt expressionism. Istället för att försöka representera specifika objekt, var de intresserade främst i färg, design, rytm och nya sätt att tillämpa färg. Pollock experimenterat med kasta och droppande färg på sina dukar från pinnar doppade i hinkar med färg. En sådan djärv teknik är bara ett exempel på den 20: e-talskonstnären sökande efter originalitet och yttrandefrihet.
I början av 1960-talet en grupp konstnärer i USA reagerade mot abstrakt expressionism. Dessa konstnärer gick till den andra ytterligheten. I ett försök att producera en konst som uttrycker andan i dag, började de att måla realistiska bilder av vardagliga saker. Deras ämnen som ingår darttavlor, glödlampor, serier och gatuskyltar. Innovatör i denna rörelse ingår Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) och Jasper Johns (1930-). Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997), Claes Oldenburg (1929-) och Andy Warhol (1928-1987) var några av dess ledare. Ibland kallas “pop” (för populära) konst, representerade den en fas genom vilken art passerat. För många människor är dock popkonst presenterade en inbjudan att ta en ordentlig titt på objekten runt dem. Designen på en soppa kan eller en flaska cola kanske aldrig har lagt märke till något annat. Abstrakt expressionism öppnade människors sinnen; popkonst öppnat ögonen.
In the mid-1960s, other types of art emerged. The “up”, or optical technique, was one. In op art, tricks our view can play become part of the artist’s style. In Vaacov Agam’s Double Metamorphosis II, the specially arranged pattern line and color seem almost to vibrate.
Some abstract artists, such as Frank Stella (1936-) and Ellsworth Kelly (1923-), sometimes form the canvas into circles, triangles and other forms. Using bright colors, they often apply color in hard edges to geometric shapes that match the shape of the canvas. So it may be difficult to distinguish between painting and sculpture today, but we appreciate the purity of color and relationship forms.